Chapter 17: The Reformation:
A New Church and the Arts
1.Why did Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s own troops sack Rome in 1527?
2.Which of the following is not one of Albrecht Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?
3.What classical literary genre did Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More revive?
4.Why does Erasmus attack Church officials in his In Praise of Folly?
5.Why did Martin Luther enter a monastery in 1505?
6.Why did Luther reject the Church’s doctrine that good deeds and work led to salvation?
7.According to Luther, why could faithful people be certain of their salvation?
8.What was at the heart of Luther’s outrage at the Church’s “salvation for sale”?
9.What did Luther claim gave him the right to post his 95 Theses on the Wittenberg church door?
10.Why did the Church excommunicate Luther in 1521?
11.Why was Luther’s translation of the New Testament into vernacular German so significant?
12.Why did Luther rebel against Church mandate about celibacy for those in a religious vocation?
13.Why was Thomas Müntzer so critical of Martin Luther during the Peasant War?
14.On what main point did Ulrich Zwingli’s ideas about Christianity differ from Luther’s?
15.What did John Calvin mean by “predestination”?
17.Why in his later years did Luther claim that the Jews were a race rejected by God?
18.What was the first major work Gutenberg published using his printing press?
19.After the advent of the printing press, who became Europe’s
20.Why did the Roman Catholic Church condemn François Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel?
21.Why did Michel de Montaigne’s wealthy father send him away at birth to be raised by peasants?
22.What style of writing for trying out ideas did Montaigne invent?
23.Why did The Nuremberg Chronicle’s illustrators not concern themselves with depicting the different cities accurately?
24.What process did Dürer use in Melancholia I to create deeper and darker shadows?
25.In both Melancholia I and Adam and Eve, what does light represent?
26.Why did many Protestants object to religious art?
27.Why did Dürer place John in the forefront in his Four Apostles?
28.Why did many Northern artists turn to painting portraits and landscapes?
29.What harmonious relationship does Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Harvesters celebrate?
30.Why were many Northerners predisposed to finding moral implications in decorative art?
31.Why did Aertsen paint the Holy Family in the background of The Meat Stall?
32.As pointed out in the chapter’s “Continuity and Change” section, why did the Roman Catholics increase the elaborateness of their churches in retaliation against Protestant simplicity?
33.Albrecht Dürer’s popular and much reproduced The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse can be viewed as symbolizing the events of late fifteenth- and the
List the four horsemen, and describe at least two of that period’s events that correspond with the horsemen.
34.Identify and explain at least three reasons Luther in his 95 Theses demanded reform of the Catholic Church.
35.Describe at least two ways in which Luther’s Reformation had political as well as religious implications.
36.Describe how and why Martin Luther changed the use of music in the church service.
37.Identify and explain at least three reasons Martin Luther and other Protestants cited to support their